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Definition: What is LWD?
By definition, Low Water Datum (LWD), or chart datum, is “the lake-wide surface so low that the water level will seldom fall below it”. Simply put, LWD is the lowest water level that should be encountered the majority of the time.

Purpose: What does LWD do?
LWD is the geopotential elevation for each of the Great Lakes, their connecting channels, and the St. Lawrence River system to which the depths shown on navigational charts and the authorized depths for navigation improvements are referred. LWD serves as the reference for navigational charts. In the Great Lakes, LWD also acts as the reference plane for authorizing harbor improvements.

Background: When was LWD established?
LWD was established in 1933 using data from the 1800s. In Moore 1939, Datum Planes on the Great Lakes, common opinion desired the adoption of a single datum plane for each Great Lake. Decisions reached by lake were:

  • For Lake Superior, the minimum state under regulation was chosen.
  • For Lakes Michigan and Huron, the Standard Low Water used by the US Lake Survey was selected.
  • For Lake Erie, a level between Standard Low Water and an improvement plane was selected.
  • For Lake Ontario, LWD was fixed between Standard Low Water and an improvement plane.
  • Each of the Great Lakes LWD was defined relative to a specific bench mark at one station (on each lake), which was used to compute lake-wide average levels. As part of the IGLD (1955) and IGLD (1985) updates, LWD was updated to the new IGLD simply by shifting the LWD by the difference in IGLD dynamic heights in the master station. The historical record of water levels has not been reviewed in the context of LWD since their original determination in 1933.

    Policy: What governs when LWD is updated?
    There is little existing documentation and policy that governs LWD updates, at least not in the Great Lakes. The Coordinating Committee on Great Lakes Basic Hydraulic and Hydrology Data is actively working to document its current actions as a way to help drive future recommendations for LWD in the Great Lakes.